This paper (accepted for publication and avialable on-line – however might have some final minute adjustments added to it by way of copyediting) seems at tendencies in wetland fowl species throughout RSPB nature reserves and compares them with ‘counterfactuals‘. You’ll should learn the paper to seek out out what counterfactuals are on the whole, and which counterfactuals had been used right here (it was a brand new phrase for me) to grasp this correctly.
Nonetheless, an image is value fairly a number of phrases and these footage;
…point out that RSPB lowland moist grassland nature reserves (the darkish (purple) strains) do ‘higher’ over a 20+ yr interval for Curlew, Lapwing, Redshank and Snipe however don’t do something a lot in any respect for Yellow Wagtail in comparison with what may need occurred.
Take residence message: shopping for land and managing it for threatened species works nicely – for some species – if accomplished nicely.
The paper takes an fascinating method which comes up with a reassuring reply.